ANATOMY 1

THE HUMAN SKELETON


Functions of the skeleton


Protection, support, attachment for muscles, locomotion, mineral bank, hematopoiesis

Types of bones in the skeleton


long bones - examples; structure of typical long bone - draw and label

flat bones - examples

short bones - examples [sesamoid bones]

irregular bones - examples

Bone markings


tuberosity ; trochanter ; tubercle ; crest ; condyle ; epicondyle ; spine ; process


SKELETON

AXIAL........SKELETON......................


SKULL-Cranium (8)
Facial bones (14)
Vertebral Column (33)
Ribs

APPENDICULAR.......................................SKELETON.......................................................


PECTORAL GIRDLE..............................................................PELVIC GIRDLE
Clavicles, Scapulae .......................................................... Hip bones

Upper limbs......................................................................... Lower limbs

Humerus................................................................................... Femur

Radius .....................................................................................Tibia Patella
Ulna ..........................................................................................Fibula

carpals .....................................................................................tarsals

metacarpals .............................................................................metatarsals

phalanges.................................................................................. phalanges

All bones as per sketches and practical examination.



THE SKULL

Flat bones held together by sutures.

8 cranial bones
14 facial bones
Important markings (p217 onwards)

SAGITTAL VIEW OF THE SKULL ---- BREATHING SYSTEM (NOSE)

THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN


functions: protection of spinal cord , passage of spinal nerves, attachments for muscles


Curvatures - region names and numbers of vertebrae.- characteristics
Structure of a typical vertebra (thoracic), atlas and axis - should be able to draw and label all.
Spinal foramena ; intervertebral discs

SACRUM - Examine, draw and describe

Abnormalities of the vertebral column


scoliosis; lordosis ; kyphosis ; herniated (slipped) disk

scoliosis.jpglordosis.jpgkyphosis2.jpg



kyphosis.jpg


THE RIB CAGE

How many ribs in the male and how many in the female?
Classification of ribs: Attachment anteriorly True, False - vertebrochondral, floating

THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON


PECTORAL GIRDLE

Scapula & clavicle - great detail


The Structure of a typical long bone
LongboneStr.jpg


Draw and label the structure of a typical long bone
Functions of each part of the bone


Discuss parts As per description in table above.

PELVIC GIRDLE

Pelvic brim, Shenton's line, etc.

DEFECTS OF THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON

hallux valgus (bunions), talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) , clawfoot, ples planus, genu valgum (knock-knees), genu varum (bow legs)


PROCEED TO JOINTS