Atom —> molecules of Compounds ----> organelles ----> cells ----> tissues ----->
organs ------> systems.

Cells differentiate and specialise in their functions. Similarly differentiated cells form tissues. Various tissues group to form organs that fulfill a particular function and organs in turn group together to form a system.


Tissues in the human body are of the following types:

Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and Nervous tissue.

1. Epithelial Tissue

Identify structure, provide functions and locations of each of the following epithelia

1.1 Sqamous epithelium

1.2 Cuboidal/Glandular epithelium

1.3 Columnar Epithelium ./ Ciliated

1.4 Stratified epithelium and pseudostratified epithelium

1.5 Transitional epithelium




2. Connective Tissue

Differentiation on the basis of the amount and state of the components present. Provide functions and locations of each of the following types of connective tissue.

Matrix (physical state) ; yellow fibres (elastic) ; white fibres (collagenous) ; fibrocytes (fibroblasts) ; characteristic protein ; Other cells

2.1 Connective Tissue Proper

2.1.1 Lose Connective Tissue/Areolar Connective Tissue

2.1.2 Yellow (Elastic) Connective Tissue

2.1.3 White (Fibrous) Conn Tiss

2.2 Cartilage

chondrin, chondroblasts –> chondrocytes, rubbery matrix

2.2.1 Hyaline Cartilage

2.2.2 Yellow elastic cartilage

2.2.3 White fibrocartilage

2.3 Bone

Ossein, osteoblasts —> osteocytes, osteoclasts, hard-calcareous matrix

2.3.1 Spongy bone : trabeculae

2.3.2 Compact bone : Haversian systems



A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. A bone fracture can be the result of high force impact or stress, or trivial injury as a result of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis, bone cancer, or osteogenesis imperfecta, where the fracture is then properly termed a pathologic fracture.

Although broken bone and bone break are common colloquialisms for a bone fracture, break is not a formal orthopedic term.


In orthopedic medicine, fractures are classified in various ways. Historically they are named after the doctor who first described the fracture conditions. However, there are more systematic classifications in place currently.

All fractures can be broadly described as:

Closed (simple) fractures are those in which the skin is intact

Open (compound) fractures involve wounds that communicate with the fracture, or where fracture hematoma is exposed, and may thus expose bone to contamination. Open injuries carry a higher risk of infection.

Other considerations in fracture care are displacement (fracture gap) and angulation. If angulation or displacement is large, reduction (manipulation) of the bone may be required and, in adults, frequently requires surgical care. These injuries may take longer to heal than injuries without displacement or angulation.
Compression fractures usually occurs in the vertebrae, for example when the front portion of a vertebra in the spine collapses due to osteoporosis (a medical condition which causes bones to become brittle and susceptible to fracture, with or without trauma).

A greenstick, buckle or torus fracture is a fracture in a young, soft bone in which the bone gets eaten away and partially breaks. This is owing in large part to the thick fibrous periosteum of immature bone. A person's bones become harder (calcified) and more brittle with age and the periosteum becomes thinner and less restrictive. Greenstick fractures usually occur most often during infancy and childhood when bones are soft. The name is by analogy with green (i.e., fresh) wood which similarly breaks on the outside when bent. There are three basic forms of greenstick fracture.

In the first a transverse fracture occurs in the cortex, extends into the mid portion of the bone and becomes oriented along the longitudinal axis of the bone without disrupting the opposite cortex.
The second form is a torus or buckling fracture, caused by impaction.
The third is a bow fracture in which the bone becomes curved along its longitudinal axis.

Signs and symptoms of Greenstick fracture

Some clinical features of a greenstick fracture are similar to those of a standard long bone fracture- greenstick fractures normally cause pain at the injured area. As these fractures are specifically a pediatric problem, an older child will be protective of the fractured part and babies may cry inconsolably. As per a standard fracture, the area may be swollen and either red or bruised. Greenstick fractures are stable fractures as a part of the bone remains intact and unbroken so this type of fracture normally causes a bend to the injured part, rather than a distinct deformity, which is problematic.

Other types of fracture are:

Complete fracture: A fracture in which bone fragments separate completely.

Incomplete fracture: A fracture in which the bone fragments are still partially joined. In such cases, there is a crack in the osseous tissue that does not completely traverse the width of the bone.

Linear fracture: A fracture that is parallel to the bone's long axis.

Transverse fracture: A fracture that is at a right angle to the bone's long axis.

Oblique fracture: A fracture that is diagonal to a bone's long axis.

Spiral fracture: A fracture where at least one part of the bone has been twisted.

Comminuted fracture: A fracture in which the bone has broken into a number of pieces.

Impacted fracture: A fracture caused when bone fragments are driven into each other.