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Thursday, August 29

  1. page Digestive System - Physiology edited THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM =======THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in progress= ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEMANATOMY …

    THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM =======THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
    in progress=
    ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEMANATOMY OF THE
    Full system , labels.
    {DigestiveSystFull.jpg} DigestiveSystFull.jpg
    DigestiveSystFull.jpg
    ANATOMYDigestiveSystFull.jpg
    ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEM-The Alimentary CanalANATOMY
    OF THE
    Structure of the mouth [tongue, teeth,]
    {MouthFulabeld.jpg} MouthFulabeld.jpg
    MouthFulabeld.jpg
    {SalivaryGlands.jpg}MouthFulabeld.jpg
    {SalivaryGlands.jpg}
    SalivaryGlands.jpg {SalivaryGlands
    SalivaryGlands.jpg
    {SalivaryGlands
    (2).jpg} SalivaryGlands (2).jpg
    SalivaryGlands
    (2).jpg
    Structure of stomach [layers of wall, general shape, sphincters]
    {StomachWall.jpg} StomachWall.jpg
    StomachWall.jpg
    StomachWall.jpg
    Functioning of the stomach
    ...
    Structure of Small and Large Intestines [layers of wall, structure of villus]
    {smalIntcolon.jpg} smalIntcolon.jpg
    smalIntcolon.jpg
    smalIntcolon.jpg
    {ileocaecaljunction.jpg} ileocaecaljunction.jpg
    ileocaecaljunction.jpg
    {smallintestine.jpg} smallintestine.jpg
    smallintestine.jpg
    smallintestine.jpg
    ileocaecaljunction.jpg
    {IntestinalMucosa.jpg} IntestinalMucosa.jpg
    IntestinalMucosa.jpg
    {EntericPlexus.jpg} EntericPlexus.jpg
    EntericPlexus.jpg
    EntericPlexus.jpg
    IntestinalMucosa.jpg
    Digestion in the SMALL INTESTINE
    ...
    intestine operates.
    BILE does not contain any enzymes. Being highly alkaline, it acts as an antiseptic in the small intestine. It emulsifies fats and plays a role in fat absorption.
    Bile reduces the fluidity of the digested food mass and it moves along more slowly and can now be driven along by peristalsis. This slow movement allows for food to be adequately mixed and thus digested by the enzymes present.
    ...
    ABSORPTION OF DIGESTED FOOD
    As soon as food is in its simplest form and it is close enough to blood vessels, it can move across into the blood vessel, some quicker than others.
    {AbsorptionFCP.jpg} {absorptionCarb.jpg} AbsorptionFCP.jpg {absorptionCarb.jpg} absorptionCarb.jpg
    Simplified diagrams to show movement of monomers of the large polymers that we ingest.
    Note the role of the bile salts in the absorption of the monomers of fats.
    ...
    Structure and functions of liver
    {LiverBileProduction.jpg} LiverBileProduction.jpg
    LiverBileProduction.jpg
    LiverBileProduction.jpg
    LiverBileProduction.jpg
    The Role of the liver in glucose metabolism under special conditions [diabetes]
    {DiabetiComaPatho.jpg} DiabetiComaPatho.jpg
    DiabetiComaPatho.jpg
    DiabetiComaPatho.jpg
    Structure and functions of pancreas
    {oddisphincter.jpg} oddisphincter.jpg
    oddisphincter.jpg
    oddisphincter.jpg
    {PancreasIsletLangerhans.gif} PancreasIsletLangerhans.gif
    PancreasIsletLangerhans.gif
    ANATOMYPancreasIsletLangerhans.gif
    ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEM-Blood supply to all structures involvedANATOMY
    OF THE
    The Hepatic Portal Blood system
    {hepaticPortalsystem.jpg} hepaticPortalsystem.jpg
    hepaticPortalsystem.jpg
    hepaticPortalsystem.jpg
    PROCESSING AND CONTROL OF BLOOD SUGAR
    {Glucosemetablism.png} Glucosemetablism.png
    Glucosemetablism.png
    Glucosemetablism.png
    {gastricemptyingraph.jpg} gastricemptyingraph.jpg
    gastricemptyingraph.jpg
    gastricemptyingraph.jpg
    LEVELS OF INSULIN AND GLUCAGON FOLLOWING A MEAL RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES
    {GraphGlucoseInsulinGlucagon.jpg} GraphGlucoseInsulinGlucagon.jpg
    GraphGlucoseInsulinGlucagon.jpg
    GraphGlucoseInsulinGlucagon.jpg
    {InsulinGlucose.jpg} InsulinGlucose.jpg
    InsulinGlucose.jpg
    InsulinGlucose.jpg
    Blue represents the glucose derived from the meal present in the blood. Insulin is secreted to remove the glucose from the blood. The diagram far right shows a cell of the body as it takes in glucose due to the presence of the insulin. The mitochondrion 'burns' the glucose for energy for the cell.
    ...
    Other actions of Insulin is depicted below:
    {InsulinEffects.jpg} InsulinEffects.jpg
    InsulinEffects.jpg
    InsulinEffects.jpg
    (view changes)
    12:08 pm
  2. file Duodenglands.tif uploaded
    12:06 pm

Saturday, July 27

  1. page Digestive System - Physiology edited ... Lactase - breaks down Lactose into glucose and galactose Sucrase - breaks down Sucrose into g…
    ...
    Lactase - breaks down Lactose into glucose and galactose
    Sucrase - breaks down Sucrose into glucose and fructose
    All digestable foods are hopefully now digested. The human body is not designed to digest cellulose fibre, which is an important component of our diet to 'scrape' the alimentary canal clean and absorb and trap water to prevent the moving food mass from becoming dehydrated.
    ABSORPTION OF DIGESTED FOOD
    As soon as food is in its simplest form and it is close enough to blood vessels, it can move across into the blood vessel, some quicker than others.
    {AbsorptionFCP.jpg} {absorptionCarb.jpg}
    Simplified diagrams to show movement of monomers of the large polymers that we ingest.
    Note the role of the bile salts in the absorption of the monomers of fats.

    The Accessory Glands
    salivary glands - above with mouth
    (view changes)
    1:56 am
  2. 1:53 am
  3. 1:52 am
  4. page Digestive System - Physiology edited THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM =======THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in progress= ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEMANATOMY …

    THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM =======THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
    in progress=
    ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEMANATOMY OF THE
    Full system , labels.
    {DigestiveSystFull.jpg} DigestiveSystFull.jpg
    ANATOMYDigestiveSystFull.jpg
    ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEM-The Alimentary CanalANATOMY
    OF THE
    Structure of the mouth [tongue, teeth,]
    {MouthFulabeld.jpg} MouthFulabeld.jpg
    {SalivaryGlands.jpg} {SalivaryGlandsMouthFulabeld.jpg
    {SalivaryGlands.jpg} SalivaryGlands.jpg {SalivaryGlands
    (2).jpg} SalivaryGlands (2).jpg
    Structure of stomach [layers of wall, general shape, sphincters]
    {StomachWall.jpg} StomachWall.jpg
    StomachWall.jpg
    Functioning of the stomach
    The stomach is probably the most important processing organ of the digestive system. If the processing in the stomach is not completed for some or other reason, further processing of some nutrient may be problematic or may not happen at all.
    As soon as saliva with "a taste of food" enters the stomach, Gastric juice is secreted. The secretion is regulated by neural and hormonal factors
    ...
    factors include:
    The presence of food or rising pH caused by the presence of saliva, cause the release of the hormone gastrin
    Gastrin causes stomach glands to produce Protein-digesting enzymes , Mucus and Hydrochloric acid
    ...
    The Acidic pH activates pepsinogen (the inactive form of the enzyme pepsin) to pepsin for protein digestion
    and Provides a hostile environment for microorganisms that may be present in the foods consumed.
    ...
    the Protein digestiondigesting enzymes
    A.Pepsin—an active protein-digesting enzyme that breaks down the full protein molecules into smaller pieces [peptones and polypeptides]
    If the protein molecules are not broken down into large chunks, further processing is not possible.
    ...
    Duodenal distension occurs as chyme accumulates and causes stretch receptors to send impulse to Medulla Oblongata
    Gastric peristalsis is inhibited and the Pyloric sphincter tightens;.
    ...
    & becomes moreless fluid and the food mass now becomes alkaline
    The Pyloric sphincter re-opens – and the process is repeated until all chyme has exited the stomach.
    Structure of Small and Large Intestines [layers of wall, structure of villus]
    {smalIntcolon.jpg} smalIntcolon.jpg {smallintestine.jpg} smallintestine.jpg {ileocaecaljunction.jpg}
    smalIntcolon.jpg
    {ileocaecaljunction.jpg}
    ileocaecaljunction.jpg
    {smallintestine.jpg} smallintestine.jpg
    smallintestine.jpg
    ileocaecaljunction.jpg
    {IntestinalMucosa.jpg} IntestinalMucosa.jpg

    {EntericPlexus.jpg} EntericPlexus.jpg {IntestinalMucosa.jpg} IntestinalMucosa.jpg
    EntericPlexus.jpg
    IntestinalMucosa.jpg
    Digestion in the SMALL INTESTINE
    The first part of the Small intestine is called the Duodenum. The Pancreas sends pancreatic juice and Liver sends bile via ducts to the duodenum. These ducts open together into the duodenum at Oddi's sphincter. Pancreatic juice and bile are both alkaline and neutralises the acidity of the chyme and creates the alkaline medium in which the enzymes of the small intestine operates.
    BILE does not contain any enzymes. Being highly alkaline, it acts as an antiseptic in the small intestine. It emulsifies fats and plays a role in fat absorption.
    Bile reduces the fluidity of the digested food mass and it moves along more slowly and can now be driven along by peristalsis. This slow movement allows for food to be adequately mixed and thus digested by the enzymes present.
    Pancreatic juice contains bicarb ions that also contributes to making the environment alkaline. PJ contains enzymes :
    Amylase which breaks down starches into maltose
    Lipase that breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
    Trypsinogen which is an inactive enzyme and becomes activated to active Trypsin in the alkaline environment by Enterokinase, an enzyme produced in the duodenum. Trypsin breaks down the peptides and peptones that exited the stomach as the first phase of protein digestion. These peptones are broken down into dipeptides and tripeptides,
    The Glands in the Small intestine, crypts of Lieberkühn, secrete a number of enzymes that further and finally completes digestion
    Lipase - fat digestion
    Enterokinase (mentioned above) activates enzymes
    Maltase - breaks down maltose into glucose
    Erepsin - breaks down the di- and tripeptides into amino acids
    Lactase - breaks down Lactose into glucose and galactose
    Sucrase - breaks down Sucrose into glucose and fructose

    The Accessory Glands
    salivary glands - above with mouth
    Structure and functions of liver
    {LiverBileProduction.jpg} LiverBileProduction.jpg
    LiverBileProduction.jpg
    LiverBileProduction.jpg
    The Role of the liver in glucose metabolism under special conditions [diabetes]
    {DiabetiComaPatho.jpg} DiabetiComaPatho.jpg
    DiabetiComaPatho.jpg
    Structure and functions of pancreas
    {oddisphincter.jpg} oddisphincter.jpg {PancreasIsletLangerhans.gif}
    oddisphincter.jpg
    {PancreasIsletLangerhans.gif}
    PancreasIsletLangerhans.gif
    PancreasIsletLangerhans.gif

    ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEM-Blood supply to all structures involvedANATOMY OF THE
    The Hepatic Portal Blood system
    {hepaticPortalsystem.jpg} hepaticPortalsystem.jpg
    hepaticPortalsystem.jpg
    PROCESSING AND CONTROL OF BLOOD SUGAR
    {Glucosemetablism.png} Glucosemetablism.png {gastricemptyingraph.jpg}
    Glucosemetablism.png
    {gastricemptyingraph.jpg}
    gastricemptyingraph.jpg
    gastricemptyingraph.jpg

    LEVELS OF INSULIN AND GLUCAGON FOLLOWING A MEAL RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES
    {GraphGlucoseInsulinGlucagon.jpg} GraphGlucoseInsulinGlucagon.jpg {InsulinGlucose.jpg}
    GraphGlucoseInsulinGlucagon.jpg
    {InsulinGlucose.jpg}
    InsulinGlucose.jpg
    InsulinGlucose.jpg

    Blue represents the glucose derived from the meal present in the blood. Insulin is secreted to remove the glucose from the blood. The diagram far right shows a cell of the body as it takes in glucose due to the presence of the insulin. The mitochondrion 'burns' the glucose for energy for the cell.
    Red represents the amount of insulin secreted over time
    ...
    Other actions of Insulin is depicted below:
    {InsulinEffects.jpg} InsulinEffects.jpg
    InsulinEffects.jpg

    (view changes)
    1:36 am

Monday, July 1

  1. page home edited This site is intended for First year Anatomy and Physiology students, but is not limited to them…

    This site is intended for First year Anatomy and Physiology students, but is not limited to them.This site is
    Anyone who is interested in knowing something about their body is welcome to browse this site.
    The site is intended to promote individual general health and wellness and allowing those who benefit from this site to help others to better health.
    ...
    information : www.craniumcommander.wordpress.com
    www.craniumcommander.wordpress.com
    ]
    What
    ...
    physically and otherwise.otherwise.......
    {VeggieFace.jpg} VeggieFace.jpg
    WelcomeVeggieFace.jpg
    Welcome to My Wiki!Welcome
    to My
    (view changes)
    1:09 am

Thursday, April 25

  1. page Digestive System - Physiology edited ... Structure of the mouth [tongue, teeth,] {MouthFulabeld.jpg} MouthFulabeld.jpg {SalivaryGland…
    ...
    Structure of the mouth [tongue, teeth,]
    {MouthFulabeld.jpg} MouthFulabeld.jpg
    {SalivaryGlands.jpg} {SalivaryGlands (2).jpg}
    Structure of stomach [layers of wall, general shape, sphincters]
    {StomachWall.jpg} StomachWall.jpg
    ...
    {EntericPlexus.jpg} EntericPlexus.jpg {IntestinalMucosa.jpg} IntestinalMucosa.jpg
    The Accessory Glands
    Names location and functions salivarysalivary glands
    {SalivaryGlands (2).jpg} SalivaryGlands (2).jpg
    {SalivaryGlands.jpg} SalivaryGlands.jpg
    - above with mouth
    Structure and functions of liver
    {LiverBileProduction.jpg} LiverBileProduction.jpg
    (view changes)
    1:05 pm
  2. page Digestive System - Physiology edited ... Retropulsion is achieved by the muscle movement in the lower regions of the stomach, virtually…
    ...
    Retropulsion is achieved by the muscle movement in the lower regions of the stomach, virtually "throwing the food back where it came from" - the upper regions of the stomach and mixing with gastric juices continues until food is digested into a thick soup called chyme.
    Chyme is acidic due to the high HCl content of gastric juice.
    III.ThePropulsion of food into the Duodenum
    The
    pylorus meters
    ...
    the small
    intestine (3
    intestine -about 3 - 5 ml at a time)
    IV.The
    time.
    The
    stomach empties in 1̵41̵ - 4 hours depending
    on
    on the size
    ...
    coiled duodenum
    II.Has
    and has to mix
    ...
    pancreatic juices
    III.Duodenal

    The Enterogastric Reflex
    Duodenal
    distension occurs as chyme accumulates
    causes
    and causes stretch receptors
    ...
    impulse to
    MO
    IV.Gastric
    Medulla Oblongata
    Gastric
    peristalsis is inhibited
    V.Pyloric
    and the Pyloric sphincter tightens
    VI.Food
    tightens;.
    The food
    in duodenum is not propelled further
    VII.Mixes
    and is allowed to mix with juices
    ...
    fluid and
    alkaline
    VIII.Pyloric
    alkaline
    The Pyloric
    sphincter opensre-opensrepeatsand the process is repeated until all chyme has exited the stomach.
    Structure of Small and Large Intestines [layers of wall, structure of villus]
    {smalIntcolon.jpg} smalIntcolon.jpg {smallintestine.jpg} smallintestine.jpg {ileocaecaljunction.jpg} ileocaecaljunction.jpg
    (view changes)
    1:00 pm
  3. page Digestive System - Physiology edited THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM =======THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM in progress= ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEMANATOMY …

    THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM =======THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
    in progress=
    ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEMANATOMY OF THE
    Full system , labels.
    {DigestiveSystFull.jpg}
    ANATOMY
    DigestiveSystFull.jpg
    ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEM-The Alimentary CanalANATOMY
    OF THE
    Structure of the mouth [tongue, teeth,]
    {MouthFulabeld.jpg} MouthFulabeld.jpg
    {SalivaryGlands.jpg}

    Structure of stomach [layers of wall, general shape, sphincters]
    {StomachWall.jpg} StomachWall.jpg
    Functioning of the stomach
    The stomach is probably the most important processing organ of the digestive system. If the processing in the stomach is not completed for some or other reason, further processing of some nutrient may be problematic or may not happen at all.
    As soon as saliva with "a taste of food" enters the stomach, Gastric juice is secreted. The secretion is regulated by neural and hormonal factors
    Some of these factors include:
    The presence of food or rising pH caused by the presence of saliva, cause the release of the hormone gastrin
    Gastrin causes stomach glands to produce Protein-digesting enzymes , Mucus and Hydrochloric acid
    Hydrochloric acid makes the stomach contents very acidic
    The Acidic pH activates pepsinogen (the inactive form of the enzyme pepsin) to pepsin for protein digestion
    and Provides a hostile environment for microorganisms that may be present in the foods consumed.
    The Functions of the Protein digestion enzymes
    A.Pepsin—an active protein-digesting enzyme that breaks down the full protein molecules into smaller pieces [peptones and polypeptides]
    If the protein molecules are not broken down into large chunks, further processing is not possible.
    B.Rennin—works on digesting milk protein in infants, not adults
    Alcohol and aspirin are absorbed from the stomach into the blood and therefore its effect is felt very quickly after ingestion.
    Processing of the food in the stomach
    Food must first be well mixed with gastric juices and this is achieved by peristalsis that occurs in the lower stomach
    Propulsion of the food and the Grinding action of the various layers of the stomach caused by the alternating contractions of these layers.
    Retropulsion is achieved by the muscle movement in the lower regions of the stomach, virtually "throwing the food back where it came from" - the upper regions of the stomach and mixing with gastric juices continues until food is digested into a thick soup called chyme.
    Chyme is acidic due to the high HCl content of gastric juice.
    III.The pylorus meters out chyme into the small
    intestine (3 ml at a time)
    IV.The stomach empties in 1̵4 hours depending
    on the size of the meal and its content
    Food leaves stomach- into coiled duodenum
    II.Has to mix with bile & pancreatic juices
    III.Duodenal distension as chyme accumulates
    causes stretch receptors to send impulse to
    MO
    IV.Gastric peristalsis inhibited
    V.Pyloric sphincter tightens
    VI.Food in duodenum not propelled further
    VII.Mixes with juices & becomes more fluid and
    alkaline
    VIII.Pyloric sphincter opens – repeats process

    Structure of Small and Large Intestines [layers of wall, structure of villus]
    {smalIntcolon.jpg} {smallintestine.jpg} {ileocaecaljunction.jpg}
    {EntericPlexus.jpg} {IntestinalMucosa.jpg}
    smalIntcolon.jpg {smallintestine.jpg} smallintestine.jpg {ileocaecaljunction.jpg} ileocaecaljunction.jpg
    {EntericPlexus.jpg} EntericPlexus.jpg {IntestinalMucosa.jpg} IntestinalMucosa.jpg

    The Accessory Glands
    Names location and functions salivary glands
    {SalivaryGlands (2).jpg}
    {SalivaryGlands.jpg}
    SalivaryGlands (2).jpg
    {SalivaryGlands.jpg} SalivaryGlands.jpg

    Structure and functions of liver
    {LiverBileProduction.jpg} LiverBileProduction.jpg {DiabetiComaPatho.jpg}
    LiverBileProduction.jpg
    The Role of the liver in glucose metabolism under special conditions [diabetes]
    {DiabetiComaPatho.jpg} DiabetiComaPatho.jpg

    Structure and functions of pancreas
    {oddisphincter.jpg} {PancreasIsletLangerhans.gif}
    ANATOMY
    oddisphincter.jpg {PancreasIsletLangerhans.gif} PancreasIsletLangerhans.gif
    ANATOMY OF THE SYSTEM-Blood supply to all structures involvedANATOMY
    OF THE
    The Hepatic Portal Blood system
    {hepaticPortalsystem.jpg} hepaticPortalsystem.jpg
    PROCESSING AND CONTROL OF BLOOD SUGAR
    {Glucosemetablism.png} {gastricemptyingraph.jpg} Glucosemetablism.png {gastricemptyingraph.jpg} gastricemptyingraph.jpg
    LEVELS OF INSULIN AND GLUCAGON FOLLOWING A MEAL RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES
    {GraphGlucoseInsulinGlucagon.jpg} {InsulinGlucose.jpg} GraphGlucoseInsulinGlucagon.jpg {InsulinGlucose.jpg} InsulinGlucose.jpg
    Blue represents the glucose derived from the meal present in the blood. Insulin is secreted to remove the glucose from the blood. The diagram far right shows a cell of the body as it takes in glucose due to the presence of the insulin. The mitochondrion 'burns' the glucose for energy for the cell.
    Red represents the amount of insulin secreted over time
    Green represents the amount of glucagon over the same period.
    Other actions of Insulin is depicted below:
    {InsulinEffects.jpg} InsulinEffects.jpg
    (view changes)
    12:51 pm

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